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Hybrid, Blended, Flipped, and Inverted: Defining Terms in a Two Dimensional Taxonomy

January, 2014

The terms hybrid, blended, flipped, and inverted are inconsistently defined in the literature creating a barrier to efficient research on and implementations of these types of classes. This paper examines existing definitions of these new types of courses and uses those definitions to identify two dimensions critical to differentiating types of courses: how instruction is delivered to students and what type of instruction students receive. The paper then addresses how these dimensions were used to create a taxonomy that defines hybrid, blended, flipped, and inverted classrooms. The taxonomy focuses on learning experiences in which students receive instructional guidance either directly from an instructor or indirectly from an instructional designer (e.g., through educational software); therefore, some elements of courses, such as unmonitored problem solving, are not specified.


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